THE TUDOR DYNASTY
Dynasty - a family of kings or other rulers whose parents, grandparents
etc. have ruled the country for many years; a period of time when a particular
family ruled a country or area; a group or family that controls a particular
business or organization for a long time.
Monarchy - the system in which a country is ruled by a king or queen; a
country that is ruled by a king or queen; the monarchy the king or queen of a
country, and his or her family.
Associations of monarchy:
-palace - the official home of a person of very high rank,
especially a king or queen; the Palace especially British English the people
who live in a palace; a large, beautifully decorated house.
-king - a man who rules a country because he is from a royal
family; the king of something someone or something that people think is the
most important or best of a particular type of person or thing; if you live like a
king, feel like a king etc., you are very successful, happy, rich etc.
-queen - the female ruler of a country; the wife of a king; the
queen of something the woman or place that is considered the best in a
particular area or activity.
-prince - the son of a king, queen, or prince; a male ruler of a
small country or state; the prince of something / a prince among
something literary the man who is best at something.
-princess - a close female relation of a king and queen, especially
a daughter; the wife of a prince.
-reign - the period when someone is king, queen, or EMPEROR
reign of; the period when someone is in charge of an organization, team etc.; a
period during which something is the most powerful or most important feature
of a place.
-throne - a special chair used by a king or queen at important
ceremonies; the throne the position and power of being a king or queen.
-kingdom - a country ruled by a king or queen; the animal /
plant / mineral kingdom one of the three parts into which the natural world
is divided; the kingdom of heaven / God also God's kingdom heaven.
-power - the ability or right to control people or events; the
position of having political control of a country or government; the ability to
influence people or give them strong feelings.
-crown - a circle made of gold and decorated with jewels, worn
by kings and queens on their heads; a circle, sometimes made of things such as
leaves or flowers, worn by someone who has won a special honour; the position
of being king or queen; the government of a country such as Britain that is
officially led by a king or queen.
The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was an English royal dynasty
that lasted 118 years, beginning in 1485 and is seen as one of the most decisive
periods in English history and consequently for the United Kingdom as a whole
as the dynasty shows the height of powers achieved by its monarchs, most
notably Henry VIII and Elizabeth I. The founder was Henry Tudor, a descendent
of an illegitimate son of John of Gaunt, the second son Duke of Lancaster, the
third son of Edward III through his mother Lady Margaret Beaufort. Henry VII
was also a descendent of Edward I through his great-grandmother, Margaret
Holland, the wife of John Beaufort, the son of John of Gaunt.
Henry allied himself with the Lancastrian King Henry VI of England,
though later pledged allegiance to the Yorkist Edward IV of England after his
return to the throne in 1471, was responsible for modernising national
Henry Tudor was succeeded by his second son who became Henry VIII of
England, the famous king who had eight wives, and created the Church of
Henry VIII was succeeded by his devoutly Protestant son, Edward VI,
who attempted to cement the Protestant religion by introducing the Book of
Common Prayer. His successor, the devoutly Catholic Mary I, overturned these
attempts, and burned hundreds of Protestants at the stake for heresy. Her
attempts, however, were also overturned when Elizabeth I re-introduced
Protestantism during her long forty-five-year reign between 1558 and 1603.
None of Henry VIII's children had any children of their own. After
Elizabeth I's death in 1603, the crown passed to Henry VII's great-grandson,
James VI of Scotland, who became James I of England. The Tudor dynasty was
succeeded by the House of Stuart.
Cementing a royal dynasty
The Dynasty Portrait or "The Whitehall Mural" The original by Hans Holbein was destroyed in the fire at Whitehall. This
copy was made by Remigius van Leemput in the 17th century. Left to right, clockwise: Henry VIII, Henry VII, Elizabeth of
York, and Jane Seymour.
The Tudor dynasty was descended from the powerful and successful
Welsh prince Rhys ap Gruffydd, through his daughter Gwenllian Rhys, who
married Ednyfed Fychan, seneschal of Gwynedd under Llewelyn the Great. The
family first gained recognition in 1428-9, when Owen Tudor contracted a secret
and illegal marriage to Catherine of Valois, the widow of Henry V. The couple
had three sons, two of whom, Jasper and Edmund, became prominent. Owen
Tudor was punished for marrying the queen dowager, but his children by
Catherine were recognised by Henry VI. Jasper Tudor was created Earl of
Pembroke, and Edmund was created Earl of Richmond. Henry VI arranged
Edmund's marriage to Margaret Beaufort, a wealthy heiress and a direct